By Clif High - June 17, 2024

How Quantum computers work...

Mostly it is simulators running on the cloud...do not be deceived.

Below please find an AI description of how quantum computers work. Note that it glosses over the fact that most ‘quantum computing’ is actually running in simulators on the cloud.

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Quantum computers operate using the principles of quantum mechanics, which allows them to process information in ways fundamentally different from classical computers. Here's a simplified overview of how they work and the steps required to use them:

__How Quantum Computers Work__

__Quantum Bits (Qubits):__ Unlike classical bits, which can be either 0 or 1, qubits can exist in multiple states simultaneously (superposition). This allows quantum computers to process a vast number of possibilities at once.

__Quantum Gates:__ Quantum gates manipulate qubits, similar to how logic gates manipulate bits in classical computing. These gates are the building blocks of quantum circuits, enabling control and manipulation of qubits.

__Entanglement:__ Qubits can become entangled, a unique quantum property where the state of one (no matter the distance) can depend on the state of another. This linkage can help quantum computers perform complex calculations more efficiently.

__Measurement:__ The state of a qubit (superposition) is not determined until it is measured. Once measured, it collapses to one of the base states (0 or 1), akin to observing a classical bit. This measurement outputs the result of quantum computations.

**Are They Analog?**

Quantum computers are not strictly analog or digital. They utilize quantum bits that can encode information in quantum states (beyond just 0s and 1s), which is different from how traditional analog systems work. However, their operation involves continuous parameters, similar to analog devices, but the computation principles are distinctly quantum.

**Steps to Use Quantum Computers**

__1. Designing Quantum Algorithms:__ First, a quantum algorithm suitable for the problem at hand must be developed. Quantum algorithms are designed to take advantage of quantum properties like superposition and entanglement.

__2. Programming:__ Quantum programming languages like Qiskit (IBM), Cirq (Google), and others are used to create quantum programs. These languages help in setting up the quantum circuits for the algorithm.

__3. Running the Program:__ The quantum program is run on a quantum computer. This could be a physical quantum computer or a quantum computing simulator.

__4. Measurement and Interpretation:__ After running the program, the final state of qubits is measured to collapse their quantum states to classical information, which can be interpreted for results.

__Programming Time__

The time it takes to create a program for a quantum computer depends greatly on the complexity of the problem and the programmer's familiarity with quantum computing concepts and tools. For simple demonstration problems, programming might take a few hours to a few days. However, developing new quantum algorithms or applications for specific real-world problems can take months to years of research and development.

Overall, quantum computing is a cutting-edge field that requires specialized knowledge in quantum mechanics, computer science, and mathematics. The development and usage of quantum computers are still largely experimental and limited to specific applications.

The time required to clear or reset a quantum computer between program executions varies depending on the specific quantum computing platform and its underlying technology. However, this reset time is generally very short, often just a matter of microseconds to milliseconds. Here are a few key considerations:

**Types of Resets in Quantum Computers**

__Qubit Initialization:__ Before a quantum program can be run, the qubits must be initialized to a known state, usually the ∣0⟩|0\rangle∣0⟩ state. This process involves cooling the qubits to their ground state, especially in systems like superconducting qubits where qubits need to be near absolute zero temperature.

__Decoherence Time:__ Quantum systems are prone to decoherence, where the qubits lose their quantum properties due to interactions with the environment. This aspect doesn't directly affect the reset time between executions, but it limits the overall time a qubit can maintain its quantum state, which indirectly influences operational cycles.

**Factors Affecting Reset Time**

__Technology Used:__ Different quantum technologies (e.g., superconducting qubits, trapped ions, topological qubits) might have different requirements for resetting. For instance, superconducting qubits might need to be recooled, whereas trapped ion systems might need ions to be repositioned or reinitialized.

__Error Correction and Verification:__ Quantum computers currently require significant error correction and verification steps, which can add to the initialization or reset time.

__System Overhead:__ Software and hardware overhead, such as recalibration of the machine and re-establishing control over the qubits, also contribute to the time taken between runs.

**Average Reset Time**

In practical terms, for many current quantum computers, especially those accessible via cloud services, the physical reset time for qubits might only be a part of the total time between submitting different quantum computing jobs. Much of the time is often consumed by the queue system of the cloud platform, setup, calibration, and other preparatory steps. The actual reset or re-initialization of the qubits themselves is relatively fast.

Thus, while the inherent reset times are very quick (microseconds to milliseconds), the overall turnaround time for running successive quantum programs might be longer due to these additional factors.

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You can easily see that claims of a ‘quantum computer blockchain’ are actual horseshit spewing from people with no technical knowledge who may be running afoul of the regulatory agencies if they are out selling securities based on bogus disinformation.

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