By: Daniel Tatic
A member of the German colonial troops "Schutztruppe" photo holding a flag of the German colonial empire. German East Africa, 1906.
Rampage jihadists in Paris which we are witnessing today have deep roots in the past. Its modern beginnings can be found in the German effort to serve Jihad as a special war directed primarily against France and Great Britain a century ago. The awakening of the medieval idea of a holy war had not had success, but only opened up a Pandora's box from which the evil continued to strengthen rapidly over the last century to its culmination reached in modern times.
The historical focus on the European continent limits our understanding of the full scope of the consequences of the Great War. Very few authors who are trying to figure out which way the first global conflict was reflected in the development of societies and countries that were European colonial Dominion although its antecedents current events in the Middle East regarding radical Islam are closely linked to the problem of terrorism lies precisely in the First World War. As strange as it may sound, the connection still exists. Probably a lot more important than what you can imagine. But first things first.
Thanks to the wealth of its raw materials and excessive human resources, colonies have played a significant role, both in the pre-war period and in the war. The main colonial powers were France and the United Kingdom, and Germany, due to its late inclusion in the distribution of colonial possessions, had a much smaller part of the colonial pie. No government in the colonies was based on the bluff that the Germans tried to use the special war against the Entente! This is best seen in the drastic ratio colonizer and colonized peoples in the Dominion. To get a real picture we'll have to play around a bit with numbers. British India in 1914 was about 300 million people who had custody of 1 200 British officers, 700 British police officers and 77 000 British troops supported by 173 000 Indian soldiers in British service. The percentage would mean that in this area the order held little more than 0.02 percent of Britons. In Egypt there were several hundred British officers and more than four thousand British soldiers to a total of 13 million Egyptians, which accounted for less than 0.04 percent of the British in Egypt. Similar ratios were colonizers in other British, French and German colonies. If we add this to our calculations the fact that in 1914 the world's population of around 245 million Muslims, of whom 30 million in Turkey, while the remaining 215 million mainly in the colonies, and the fact that the sultan in Istanbul represented the supreme religious authority, then we get the formula for the perfect special war against the Entente. That formula was very well known in Berlin!
German plan was magnificent, both in its scope and simplicity, and by the illusion that they are carried away by its creators. The first stage was to attract Turkey to the side of the Central Powers, which was not a significant problem if we know that Russia is a long time posed a serious threat to Turkey. The second stage was much simpler. Turkey's accession, as the capital of Islam, the war against the Entente Berlin is intended to exploit the uprising among Muslims in British and French colonies. The key link was the sultan in Istanbul, and German diplomacy in the last months of 1914 worked hard to convince the sultan and his Minister of War, Enver Pasha, on the need for the declaration of holy war, jihad, which would every Muslim in the world committed to providing resistance to Entente. It was a heck of a plan whose success could undermine the colonial forces for the further conduct of the war were dependent on raw materials as they advanced from their colonies. And even not only on them but also on their colonial troops that are in ever greater numbers arriving on European battlefields. It was a plan that is going to score in Berlin spear into the Achilles heel of their opponents. This plan was on the verge of the Russian special war ogrnutog in pan-Slavic ideas, which Moscow has long been carried out against Austria-Hungary and Turkey in the Balkans.
Photo: Members of the German colonial troops in German East Africa Photo: Bundesarchiv
Powerful uprising against British rule, which broke out in Sudan in 1881, is essentially a religious characteristics and serves as an inspiration to the Germans to conduct special warfare. But it was a very risky move considering that Germany and, to a lesser extent, also a colonial power and thereby risked her and that the plan does not backfire. There was a danger that the open declaration of jihad bring a strong contribution to the radicalization of Muslims in Africa and that they turn against the German colonial government. Maybe this is the danger we can find the reasons for not forcing the German Turkey to enter the war in the first months of the war? If so then we put together the things in the German plan special war we can emerge a backup plan, which is due to come into play if the schedule plan quick war in Europe, although it could be a crucial moment to destabilize the opponent from behind and thus speed up the win. In any case, Berlin did not doubt his success. In order to encourage an uprising and a greater turnout of jihad, the Germans were planning to assassinate Egyptian kedifa and the Sultan of Morocco and Tunisia, and for this purpose provided funds in the amount of five million. Meanwhile, the German diplomats in the United States bought weapons intended for rebels in British India. Holy War was sure trump card that was supposed to pull out of his hat at the right moment. At least the German military leadership was in that belief.
On elimination of the danger of radicalization of Muslims in German colonies wholeheartedly involved in the pre-war years. That is why the work of Catholic missionary mission in the German colonies was limited and played a supporting role. The schools have dominated Muslim teachers and the number of Muslims was growing. Despite the missionaries who warned the "Islamic threat", the German authorities are refusing to change its colonial policy. Although the percentage of Muslims in the German colonies amounted to only 3.5 percent, about 350 000 people, Muslims represent the majority of Africans in the German colonial administration and army. Germany publicity showed the Emperor William as a friend of all Muslims. His birthday was the main celebration in the German colonies, and some sources indicate that German troops even occasionally marched under green flag decorated with verses from the Koran. German commanders had orders not to interfere in the religious affairs of the colonial troops, and their view of Islam was caused by fear of radical Islam, which was based, at that time the European view of Muslims. This view was based on the Sudanese uprising Mahdijevaca of 1881 and had a powerful effect on public opinion of Europeans of that time! In this respect, rested and German belief in the successful implementation of jihad as a special war against the Entente.
German belief in a positive outcome of jihad was equivalent to the fear that it caused among British and the French. But when the sultan in March 1915 declared jihad and it all Muslims of the world imposed a sacred duty to oppose the forces of the Entente, the call remained almost unheeded. The great hope of German leadership were completely dispelled, and it came to light that Berlin did not realize aspirations and relationships within the colonial world. On the Arabian Peninsula German promotion has not found a fertile ground because the local Arabs, the Turkish government saw it as a coloniser. In Egypt and other colonies of the Entente was not enough Muslim intelligentsia which was to become the carrier of the uprising, and rough calculations colonists from earlier attempts at rebellion were deeply embedded in the consciousness of the conquered peoples. It is obvious that their own religious reasons, without institutional support, were not sufficient incentive. In Egypt, the proclamation was published in several newspapers over several days. The only effect is thus achieved was a controversial debate that has been launched among students and journalists about the legitimacy and importance of the proclamation. The weapons which the German diplomats purchased in the US for the insurrection in British India could not be translated to India. Indian Muslims have remained loyal even when the British army threatened to Istanbul. Indian National Congress, then the most important Indian national movement, is celebrating its radicalization until 1916, and it fully independent from the German incentives! German assistance in arms and promoting the rebels against the French government in Morocco has remained seized of the French and before he reached them. Call to Jihad succeeded only in Senusija, small religious community in North Africa. But since there was not much help. The masses of Muslims around the world have turned a deaf ear to the Sultan's proclamation for two reasons. The first is the lack of national intelligence, and thus the institutionalization of the uprising, and the second is that the jihad then-Muslims was virtually unknown concept! This is best evidenced by an open letter in response to the Sultan's proclamation addressed the students of Cairo University. It challenged the Istanbul right to publish holy war, describing Sultan's call completely unfounded and un-Islamic act. For only later learned Egyptian intelligence idea of jihad belonged to medieval times, and she did not change in their views on the Muslim future. The Islamic world in the early 20th century aspired to prosperity, which is found in European models, not returning to the past. Because the seeds of jihad might not even fall on fertile ground.
Although the German side in some uprisings against conscription tried to see the success of their ideas, the real reasons unrelated to the sultan's call. But because the war and the postwar period, however eventually actualized the idea of holy war. In World War I the first time the peoples of the colonies shoulder to shoulder fought and died with a European man, the first time they killed the Europeans and it is rewarded. Precisely on European battlefields deeply rooted ideas of equality, although only in the minds of the colonial troops. Germany propaganda jihad is not the Germans brought victory, but the views formed colonies on the war and the colonial government. Disappointment occurred after the war. Besides the suffering of the war did not bring anything good, the peoples in the colonies have remained oppressed. The equality they experienced on the battlefield was again abolished. The West has still kept the old way, and the resistance of the people of the colonial world inexorably grew. Middle East because of its proximity to European forces suffered more than the rest of the colonial world, and the spirit which the Western powers conjured from distant Islamic past continued to feed the colonizing attitude of the West towards the Middle East. So we can safely say that the same West today is suffering the consequences of radicalization of Islam, which a century ago I was encouraged, as well as for its own colonial view that because of his vanity in this century has not managed to overcome. The attentive reader will certainly not miss the fact that precisely France, as the main German rival in both wars, today suffers from terrorist attacks that take place on its soil. By contrast, Germany has been spared attacks although it has received by far the largest number of Syrian refugees and regardless of which she had inspired the idea of jihad exactly a century ago. If the current situation observed from the perspective of that time, they could be roughly concluded that France still suffers the consequences of the special war that Germany launched against her and Great Britain over a century ago. All history is interwoven cause-and-effect relationship, many things are like boomerangs back to those who were first encouraged and sometimes the boomerang after a century hardest hit neighbors.
Above is machine translation, text was to long to clear it up.
They become beasts: To ISILs small pill provides super strength
Captagon is a psychostimulant containing amphetamine and caffeine. It is ideal for stimulating aggression and eliminating fear. The most widespread among the soldiers of the so-called. Islamic State
Saturday, 21. 11. 2015 at 08:20, last modified 3 hours and 51 minutes ago
By Iva Rebac
- They cannot sleep, not even close their eyes. They feel unstoppable - said one of Captagon drug users for a BBC documentary aired in September of this year, while another added that it feels like it has power in his hands.
- Like I have a power that no one else has. The feeling is fantastic! - Said another user for drugs produced in Syria and is available across the Middle East and massively used by fighters in the Syrian battlefield. Money from illegal sales are spent on financing new weapons and maintaining a conflict which no end in sight.
Captagon is a psychostimulant, a derivative of amphetamine, which dulls the nerves and allows soldiers to fight longer without feeling the pain of the wound. Because of this they behave like animals or even scarier than that. Ideal for stimulating aggression and eliminating fear...
More at source.